Анализ лексических и грамматических трансформаций, использованных при переводе английского аутентичного текста "Королевская семья"
Целью данного исследования был анализ лексических и грамматических трансформаций, использованных при переводе английского аутентичного текста по теме: «Королевская семья». Проанализировав англоязычный текст по заданной теме, мной были сделаны следующие выводы:
1. При переводе англоязычного текста возникает ряд переводческих трудностей, связанных с различиями в семантической и стилистической структуре языков. Переводчик должен стремиться не к передаче отдельного элемента, отдельного слова, а к передаче той смысловой и стилистической функции, которая выполняется данным элементом.
2. При переводе англоязычного текста я использовала следующие приёмы лексико-грамматической трансформации: грамматическая замена, транслитерация, перестановка (перемещение), конкретизация, опущение (сокращение). Анализ использованных переводческих приёмов показал необходимость тщательного выбора лексических, грамматических и стилистических единиц для передачи полного смысла переводимого материала.
3. Перевод англоязычных текстов обуславливает выбор способов и приёмов перевода.
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2. "Royal website Fact Files". Royal.gov.uk. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
3. The official website of the British Monarchy http://www.royal.gov.uk
4. Слепович, В.С. Курс перевода (английский - русский язык) / В.С. Слепович Мн.: "ТетраСистемс", 2002. - 272 с.
5. Комиссаров, В. Н. Теория перевода (лингвистические аспекты) / В.Н. Комиссаров. - М.: Высшая школа, 1990. - 253с.
6. Латышев Л.К. Курс перевода / Л.К. Латышев. - М.: Международные отношения, 1981. - 248с.
7. "Diana, Princess of Wales - Marriage and family". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
8. Diana: Her True Story, Commemorative Edition, by Andrew Morton, 1997,Simon & Schuster
British Royal Family, the - Британская Королевская семья;
Commonwealth realms - Королевства Содружества(титул в 16 государствах Содружества, считающих королеву Елизавету II своим монархом, в каждом из них она выступает как глава государства и носит соответствующий титул);
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha - Саксен-Кобург - Готская династия (ветвь Эрнестинской линии древней саксонской династии Веттинов, правившая в некоторых государствах Европы и являющаяся правящей династией в Бельгии и Великобритании);
Definition, the - определение;
Application, the - приложение, принадлежность;
Her or His Majesty - Его или Её Королевское Величество;
Her or His Royal Highness - Его или Её Королевское Высочество;
Male-line, the - мужская линия (родство по мужской линии);
Precedence, the - приоритет, старшинство, предшествование, первенство, превосходство;
Commonwealth of Nations, the - Содружество наций (добровольное межгосударственное объединение суверенных государств, в которое входят Великобритания и почти все её бывшие доминионы, колонии и протектораты.);
Governance, the - государственное управление;
Rule of law, the - верховенство закона;
Individual liberty, the - индивидуальная, личная свобода;
Multilateralism, the - многосторонность;
Free trade, the - свободная торговля;
Egalitarianism, the - эгалитаризм;
World peace, the - мир во всем мире;
Development, the - развитие, разработка, создание, совершенствование, освоение, формирование;
Abdication, the - отречение, сложение полномочий, отказ от должности;
Name after somebody, to - назвать кого-то в честь кого-то, назвать именем другого человека;
Public interest, the - интерес со стороны общественности;
Engagement, the - помолвка;
Honeymoon, the - медовый месяц;
Pay public tribute, to - отдать дать уважения перед общественностью;
Occasion, the - повод, торжественный случай, благоприятный случай, событие, возможность;
Service to the country, the - служение стране;
Heir apparent, the - наследник, престолонаследник;
Reigning monarch, the - правящий монарх;
Fund-raising work for international charities - сбор средств для работы международных благотворительных организаций;
Eminent, the - видный, выдающийся, именитый, знаменитый, замечательный;
Chauffeur, the - шофер, водитель;
Inebriation, the - опьянение;
Television audience - телевизионная аудитория, телезрители;
Announce, to - объявлять, сообщать, анонсировать, оглашать, заявлять, извещать;
Westminster Abbey - Вестминстерское аббатство( готическая церковь в Вестминстере (Лондон));
Оригинальная статья ENGLISH ROYAL FAMILY
The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom. Members of the Royal Family belong to, either by birth or marriage, the House of Windsor, since 1917, when George V changed the name of the royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. This decision was primarily taken because Britain and her Empire were at war with Germany and given the British Royal Familys strong German ancestry; it was felt that its public image could be improved by choosing a more British house name. The new name chosen, Windsor, had absolutely no connection other than as the name of the castle which was and continues to be a royal residence.
Although in the United Kingdom there is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the Royal Family, and different lists will include different people, those carrying the style Her or His Majesty (HM), or Her or His Royal Highness (HRH) are always considered members, which usually results in the application of the term to the monarch, the consort of the monarch, the widowed consorts of previous monarchs, the children of the monarch and previous monarchs, the male-line grandchildren of the monarch and previous monarchs, and the spouses and the widows of a monarchs and previous monarchs sons and male-line grandsons.
Members and relatives of the British Royal Family historically represented the monarch in various places throughout the British Empire, sometimes for extended periods as viceroys, or for specific ceremonies or events. Today, they often perform ceremonial and social duties throughout the United Kingdom and abroad on behalf of the United Kingdom.
The Queen, her consort, her children and grandchildren, as well as all former sovereigns children and grandchildren hold places in the first sections of the official orders of precedence in England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Wives of the said enjoy their husbands precedence, and husbands of princesses are unofficially but habitually placed with their wives as well. However, the Queen changed the private order of precedence in the Royal Family in favor of Princesses Anne and Alexandra, who henceforth take private precedence over the Duchess of Cornwall, who is otherwise the realms highest ranking woman after the Queen herself. She did not alter the relative precedence of other born-princesses, such as the daughters of her younger sons.
The Queen is Head of State of the UK and 15 other Commonwealth realms. As well as the United Kingdom, she is Queen of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, and Saint Kitts and Nevis, where she is represented by Governors-General. The sixteen countries of which she is Queen are known as Commonwealth Realms, and their combined population is 134 million. She is Head of the Commonwealth of Nations comprising 54 member states in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania. The aims of the Commonwealth include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism, and world peace. The 2.1 billion people in the member states account for almost a third of the current world population.
Her reign of over more than half a century has seen 12 Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, and numerous Prime Ministers in the Commonwealth Realms of which she is (or was) also Head of State; between them she has had a total of 140 Prime Ministers during her reign. There have been 12 US Presidents during her reign.
From the beginning she stood third in line of succession to the throne after Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII), and her father, The Duke of York. But it was not expected that her father would become King, or that she would become Queen.
The Princess was christened Elizabeth Alexandra Mary in the private chapel at Buckingham Palace. She was named after her mother, while her two middle names are those of her paternal great-grandmother, Queen Alexandra, and paternal grandmother, Queen Mary. In 1930, Princess Elizabeth gained a sister, with the birth of Princess Margaret Rose. The family of four was very close.
Princess Elizabeths quiet family life came to an end in 1936, when her grandfather, King George V, died. His eldest son came to the throne as King Edward VIII, but, before the end of the year, King Edward VIII had decided to give up the throne in order to marry the woman he loved, Mrs Wallis Simpson.
Upon his abdication, Princess Elizabeths father acceded to the throne as King George VI, and in 1937 the two Princesses attended their parents coronation in Westminster Abbey. Princess Elizabeth was now first in line to the throne, and a figure of even more intense public interest.
In 1947, the Princesss engagement to Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten was announced. The couple, who had known each other for many years, was married in Westminster Abbey on 20 November 1947. The event was fairly simple, as Britain was still recovering from the war, and Princess Elizabeth had to collect clothing coupons for her dress, like any other young bride. They spent their honeymoon at Broadlands, Hampshire, the home of Lord Mountbatten, and at Birkhall, Balmoral.
Lieutenant Mountbatten, now His Royal Highness the Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, was the son of Prince Andrew of Greece and a great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria. The Queen has paid public tribute to her husband on several occasions, recalling his loyal support and service to the country.
The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh celebrated their 65th wedding anniversary on 20 November 2012.They have four children, eight grandchildren and one great-grandchild.
Prince Charles, now The Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the throne, was born in 1948, and his sister, Princess Anne, now The Princess Royal, two years later. After Princess Elizabeth became Queen, their third child, Prince Andrew, arrived in 1960 and the fourth, Prince Edward, in 1964. Prince Andrew and Prince Edward were the first children to be born to a reigning monarch since Queen Victoria had her family.
Their grandchildren are Peter and Zara Phillips (b. 1977 and 1981); Prince William of Wales and Prince Henry of Wales (b. 1982 and 1984); Princess Beatrice of York and Princess Eugenie of York (b. 1988 and 1990); and The Lady Louise Windsor and Viscount Severn (b.2003 and 2007), children of The Earl and Countess of Wessex.
And in the summer of 2006, The Queen celebrated her 80th birthday by taking a cruise with all her family through the Western Isles of Scotland.6 February 2013 marked the 61st anniversary of The Queens Accession to the throne.
Princess Diana of Wales is no less interesting person of the Royal Family. She was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, whom she married on 29 July 1981. She was also well known for her fund-raising work for international charities and as an eminent celebrity of the late 20th century. Her wedding to Charles, heir to the British throne and those of the then 18 Commonwealth realms, was held at St Pauls Cathedral and seen by a global television audience of over 750 million. While married she bore the titles Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Countess of Chester and Baroness of Renfrew. The marriage produced two sons, the princes William and Harry, who became second and third in line to the British throne.
On 31 August 1997, Diana, Princess of Wales died as a result of injuries sustained in a car accident in the Pont de lAlma road tunnel in Paris, France. Her boyfriend, Dodi Fayed, and the driver of the Mercedes-Benz W140, Henri Paul, were also pronounced dead at the scene of the accident. The bodyguard of Diana and Dodi, Trevor Rees-Jones, was the only survivor. Although the media pinned the blame on the paparazzi, the crash was ultimately found to be caused by the reckless actions of the chauffeur. An 18-month French judicial investigation concluded in 1999 that the crash was caused by Paul, who lost control of the car at high speed while drunk. His inebriation may have been made worse by the simultaneous presence of an anti-depressant and traces of a tranquilizing anti-psychotic in his body. The son of Diana, Princess of Wales Prince William Duke of Cambridge married a Catherine Middleton, who had been one of Williams university flatmates and whom William began dating in 2003. The wedding took place on 29 April 2011 in Westminster Abbey, London. The day was made a bank holiday in the UK. Estimates of the global audience for the wedding range from 300 million to 2 billion people, whilst 24.5 million watched the event live in the United Kingdom. A few hours before the wedding, it was announced that William had become Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus, as is customary for princes on the occasion of their weddings.