Порівняльна характеристика складних прикметників англійської та української мови
With continual development of society in the fields of science, technology, culture, accumulated knowledge, and human language develops fully.English is progressing in its development more than Ukrainian, for a fairly wide area of use in various fields of science, technology and culture, and is more loyal, this is due to progress in the countries of its native-speakers. It easily assimilates foreign words, manipulates morphemes forming compound words, while the Ukrainian has strong literary limits, assimilation of foreign non-English words is difficult, but after assimilation through English.
To generalize the concept of the phenomenon, to describe it better with a certain, his only native flavor and reduce writing epithets at his address in the language were created compound adjectives, as in English and in Ukrainian. For us as for those studying the language, the laws of compounding are an important knowledge creation and writing of compound adjectives, because we are native speakers and try to acquire knowledge of other languages. We use compound adjectives, especially to describe the appearance and character of the person and to tell in detail about a particular object or phenomenon.
Analysis of quantitative parameters of 50 compound adjectives in English and Ukrainian languages showed that in English and Ukrainian languages may form compound adjectives as many of the same components-parts of speech, and from very different parts of speech. The same compound adjectives in meaning make different structures in compounding. Most English compound adjectives are formed by the scheme adjective/adverb + past participle, where the second component, participle - the core meaning of the word. Most of the Ukrainian compound adjectives falls on a combination of nouns with adjectives, where there are sometimes when the main component that stores the value in words can be as noun and as adjective. Sometimes compound adjectives in English with translation into Ukrainian reserves its multi-structure.
Detailed structural analysis showed that the compound adjectives in English are formed without the addition of affixes. Instead, compound adjectives Ukrainian language never formed without affixes. This is because of different grammars of languages, differences in the development of languages.
Affix (Latin affixus-attached, linked) - a component that makes a change in the value of the root. Derivational affixes create new words, inflectional - express the ratio of words to other words. Affix a means of expressing lexical meaning and relationships between words in phrase and sentence.
Such structural analysis allows to understand that in English and Ukrainian is the type of compound adjectives of foreign origin, which is formed from the adjective-morpheme and another adjective-morpheme and does not change its structure by the translation. To dentify the center value of adjectives such a structure is impossible, because of these bases are equal and have coordinated communications. There are compound adjectives that will always have many morphemes as in English and in Ukrainian as well - these adjectives formed from numeral-parts and noun or adjective. They are very efficient and are often used in different spheres of life, are created as needed, so most of these compound adjectives we wont find in dictionaries.
In the English and the Ukrainian languages are in demand compound adjectives, especially in English, which consist of adjectives or adverbs morphemes and morphemes past participle. These adjectives and adverbs morpheme can be replaced by other, changing the value of a compound adjective on the contrary or the like. Thus, we can form some compound words as synonyms and antonyms.
After analyzing the material in different ways as we found similarities and differences in the structure and proportions studied 50 units - 50 compound adjectives. Our results showed there are similarities in meaning and structure of adjectives in two languages English and Ukrainian and they are more. This is due to similar characteristics, characteristics of objects and phenomena in the languages. Differences of compound adjectives by the structure are also not less.